Section-60 :- Oral evidence must be direct.-

Oral evidence must, in all cases whatever, be direct; that is to say— If it refers to a fact which could be seen, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he saw it; If it refers to a fact which could be heard, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he heard it; If it refers to a fact which could be perceived by any other sense or in any other manner, it must be the evidence of a witness who says he perceived it by that sense or in that manner; If it refers to an opinion or to the grounds on which that opinion is held, it must be the evidence of the person who holds that opinion on those grounds: Provided that the opinions of experts expressed in any treatise commonly offered for sale, and the grounds on which such opinions are held, may be proved by the production of such treatises if the author is dead or cannot be found, or has become incapable of giving evidence, or cannot be called as a witness without an amount of delay or expense which the Court regards as unreasonable: Provided also that, if oral evidence refers to the existence or condition of any material thing other than a document, the Court may, if it thinks fit, require the production of such material thing for its inspection.

धारा – 60 :- मौखिक साक्ष्य प्रत्यक्ष होना चाहिए-

मौखिक साक्ष्य, समस्त अवस्थाओं में चाहे वे कैसी ही हो प्रत्यक्ष ही होगा, अर्थात-यदि वह किसी देख जा सकने वाले तथ्य के बारे में है, तो वह ऐसे साक्षी का ही साक्ष्य होगा जो कहता है कि उसने उसे देखा; यदि वह किसी से ना सकने वाले तथ्य के बारे में है, तो वह ऐसे साक्षी का ही साक्ष्य होगा जो कहता है कि उसने सुना; यदि वह किसी ऐसे तथ्य के बारे में है जिसका किसी अन्य इन्द्रिय द्वारा या किसी अन्य रीति से बोध हो सकता था, तो वह ऐसे साक्षी का ही साक्ष्य होगा जो कहता है कि उसने उसका बोध इस इन्द्रिय द्वारा या उस रीति से किया;यदि वह किसी राय के, या उन आधारों के, जिन पर राय आधारित है, बारे में है, तो वह उस व्यक्ति का ही साक्ष्य होगा जो वह राय उन आधारों पर धारण करता है:परन्तु विशेषज्ञों की राय, जो सामान्यतः बिक्री के लिए प्रस्थापित की जाने वाली किसी पुस्तक में अभिव्यक्त है, और वे आधार जिन पर ऐसी रायें धारित हैं, यदि रचयिता मर गया है, या वह तिमल नहीं सकात है। या वह साक्ष्य देने के लिए असमर्थ हो गया है या उसे अपने विलंब या व्यय के बिना जितना न्यायालय अयुक्तियुक्त समझता है, साक्षी के रूप में बुलाया नहीं जा सकती हो, ऐसी पुस्तकों को पेश करके साबित किए जा सकेंगे परन्तु यह भी कि यदि मौखिक साक्ष्य दस्तावेज से भिन्न किसी भौतिक चीज के अस्तित्व या दशा के बारे में है, तो न्यायालय, यदि वह ठीक समझे, ऐसी भौतिक चीज का अपने निरीक्षण अर्थ पेश किया जाना अपेक्षित कर सकेगा।

Advocate Paresh M Modi is a highly regarded advocate based in Ahmedabad, known for his expertise in criminal law. As a distinguished lawyer at the Gujarat High Court, he specializes in a wide range of legal matters, making him a sought-after professional in various areas of law. Some of his notable specializations include handling cases related to cheque bounce, property disputes, cybercrime, court marriages, divorces, debt recovery tribunals (DRT), FIR quashing, land revenue disputes, anticipatory bail, PASA (Prevention of Anti-Social Activities Act), family law, civil law, and more. Advocate Paresh M Modi is a highly skilled lawyer practicing at the Gujarat High Court Lawyer in Ahmedabad. With his extensive experience and expertise, He has established himself as a renowned advocate in the region. Stay connected with him on social media for updates:

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