Section 63 Secondary evidence.—Secondary evidence means and includes—

(1) Certified copies given under the provisions hereinafter contained 1;1;”

(2) Copies made from the original by mechanical processes which in themselves insure the accuracy of the copy, and copies compared with such copies;

(3) Copies made from or compared with the original;

(4) Counterparts of documents as against the parties who did not execute them;

(5) Oral accounts of the contents of a document given by some person who has himself seen it.


(a) A photograph of an original is secondary evidence of its contents, though the two have not been compared, if it is proved that the thing photographed was the original.

(b) A copy compared with a copy of a letter made by a copying machine is secondary evidence of the contents of the letter, if it is shown that the copy made by the copying machine was made from the original.

(c) A copy transcribed from a copy, but afterwards compared with the original, is secondary evidence; but the copy not so compared is not secondary evidence of the original, although the copy from which it was transcribed was compared with the original.

(d) Neither an oral account of a copy compared with the original, nor an oral account of a photograph or machine-copy of the original, is secondary evidence of the original.

धारा-63. द्वितीयक साक्ष्य – द्वितीयक साक्ष्य से अभिप्रेत है और उसके अन्तर्गत आते हैं-

(1) एतस्मिन्प्श्चात अन्तर्विष्ट उपबन्धों के अधीन दी हुई प्रमाणित प्रतियां;

(2) मूल से ऐसी यांत्रिक प्रक्रियाओं द्वारा, जो प्रक्रियाएं स्वयं ही प्रति का शुद्धता सुनिश्चित करती हैं, बनाई गई प्रतियां तथा ऐसी प्रजातियों से तुलना की हुई प्रतिलिपि;

(3) मूल से बनाई गई या तुलना की गई प्रतियां;

(4) उन पक्षकारों के विरुद्ध, जिन्होंने उन्हें निष्पादित नहीं किया है, दस्तावेजों के प्रतिलेख;

(5) किसी दस्तावेज की अंतर्वस्तु का उस व्यक्ति द्वारा, जिसने सबसे उसे देखा है, दिया हुआ मौखिक वृत्तान्त।


(क) किसी मूल का फोटोचित्र, यद्यपि दोनों की तुलना न की गई हो तथापि यदि ये साबित किया जाता है कि फोटोचित्र वस्तु मूल थी, उस मूल की अन्तर्वस्तु का द्वितीयक साक्ष्य है।

(ख) किसी पत्र की वह प्रति, जिसकी तलना उस पत्र की, उस प्रति से कर ली गई है जो प्रतिलिपि-यंत्र द्वारा तैयार की गई है, उस पत्र की अन्तर्वस्तु का द्वितीयक साक्ष्य है, यदि यह दर्शित कर दिया जाता है कि प्रतिलिपि-यंत्र द्वारा तैयार की गई प्रति मूल से बनाई गई थी।

(ग) प्रति की नकल करके तैयार की गई किन्तु तत्पश्चात् मूल से तुलना की हुई प्रतिलिपि द्वितीयक साक्ष्य है, किन्तु इस प्रकार तुलना नहीं की हुई प्रति मूल का द्वितीयक साक्ष्य नहीं है, यद्यपि उस प्रति की, जिससे वह नकल की गई है, मूल से तुलना की गई थी।

(घ) न तो मूल से तुलनाकृत प्रति का मौखिक वृत्तान्त और न मूल के किसी फांेटोचित्र या यन्त्रकृत प्रति का मौखिक वृत्तान्त मूल का द्वितीयक साक्ष्य हैं।

Advocate Paresh M Modi is a highly regarded advocate based in Ahmedabad, known for his expertise in criminal law. As a distinguished lawyer at the Gujarat High Court, he specializes in a wide range of legal matters, making him a sought-after professional in various areas of law. Some of his notable specializations include handling cases related to cheque bounce, property disputes, cybercrime, court marriages, divorces, debt recovery tribunals (DRT), FIR quashing, land revenue disputes, anticipatory bail, PASA (Prevention of Anti-Social Activities Act), family law, civil law, and more. Advocate Paresh M Modi is a highly skilled lawyer practicing at the Gujarat High Court Lawyer in Ahmedabad. With his extensive experience and expertise, He has established himself as a renowned advocate in the region. Stay connected with him on social media for updates:

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